Case Report: Immune Checkpoint Blockade Plus Interferon-Γ Add-On Antifungal Therapy in the Treatment of Refractory Covid-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Cerebral Mucormycosis

Front Immunol. 2022 Jun 1:13:900522. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.900522. eCollection 2022.


Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) still cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Recent data suggest a benefit of checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We report the case of a diabetic patient with refractory IFD following a SARSCoV-2 infection treated by ICI and interferon-gamma associated with antifungal treatment.

Keywords: anti-PD 1; cerebral mucormycosis; covid-associated pulmonary aspergillosis; immunotherapy; invasive fungal disease.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment*
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Humans
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use
  • Mucormycosis* / complications
  • Mucormycosis* / drug therapy
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Interferon-gamma