Development of a High-Fidelity, 3D Printed Otoplasty Surgical Simulator

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2023 Jun;132(6):607-613. doi: 10.1177/00034894221105831. Epub 2022 Jun 20.


Importance: Prominotia has functional and esthetic impact for the child and family and proficiency in otoplasty requires experiential rehearsal.

Objectives: To design and validate an anatomically accurate, 3D printed prominotia simulator for rehearsal of otoplasties.

Methods: A 3D prominotia model was designed from a computed tomographic (CT) scan and edited in 3-matic software. Negative molds were 3D printed and filled with silicone. Expert surgeons performed an otoplasty procedure on these simulators and provided Likert-based feedback.

Results: Six expert surgeons with a mean of 14.3 years of practice evaluated physical qualities, realism, performance, and value of the simulator. The simulator was rated on a scale of 1 (no value) to 5 (great value) and scored 3.83 as a training tool, 3.83 as a competency evaluation tool, and 4 as a rehearsal tool.

Conclusions: Expert validation rated the otoplasty simulator highly in physical qualities, realism, performance, and value. With minor modifications, this model demonstrates valuable educational potential.

Keywords: high fidelity simulation training; medical education; three-dimensional printing.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Simulation Training*
  • Software
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed