Performance evaluation of a visual guidance patient-controlled respiratory gating system for respiratory-gated magnetic-resonance image-guided radiation therapy

Phys Eng Sci Med. 2022 Sep;45(3):809-816. doi: 10.1007/s13246-022-01144-0. Epub 2022 Jun 20.


The performance of a visual guidance patient-controlled (VG-PC) respiratory gating system for magnetic-resonance (MR) image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) was evaluated through a clinical trial of patients with either lung or liver cancer. Patients can voluntarily control their respiration utilizing the VG-PC respiratory gating system. The system enables patients to view near-real-time cine planar MR images projected inside the bore of MR-IGRT systems or an external screen. Twenty patients who had received stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung or liver cancer were prospectively selected for this study. Before the first treatment, comprehensive instruction on the VG-PC respiratory gating system was provided to the patients. Respiratory-gated MR-IGRT was performed for each patient with it in the first fraction and then without it in the second fraction. For both the fractions, the total treatment time, beam-off time owing to the respiratory gating, and number of beam-off events were analyzed. The average total treatment time, beam-off time, and number of beam-off events with the system were 1507.3 s, 679.5 s, and 185, respectively, and those without the system were 2023.7 s (p < 0.001), 1195.0 s (p < 0.001), and 380 times (p < 0.001), respectively. The VG-PC respiratory gating system improved treatment efficiency through a reduction in the beam-off time, the number of beam-off events, and consequently the total treatment time when performing respiratory-gated MR-IGRT for lung and liver SABR.

Keywords: Breath-hold; Respiratory-gated radiotherapy; Treatment efficiency; Visual guidance.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Neoplasms* / radiotherapy
  • Lung Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Neoplasms* / radiotherapy
  • Lung Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Magnetic Phenomena
  • Radiosurgery*
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided* / methods