Type 1 diabetes in diverse ancestries and the use of genetic risk scores

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2022 Aug;10(8):597-608. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00159-0. Epub 2022 Jun 17.


Over 75 genetic loci within and outside of the HLA region influence type 1 diabetes risk. Genetic risk scores (GRS), which facilitate the integration of complex genetic information, have been developed in type 1 diabetes and incorporated into models and algorithms for classification, prognosis, and prediction of disease and response to preventive and therapeutic interventions. However, the development and validation of GRS across different ancestries is still emerging, as is knowledge on type 1 diabetes genetics in populations of diverse genetic ancestries. In this Review, we provide a summary of the current evidence on the evolutionary genetic variation in type 1 diabetes and the racial and ethnic differences in type 1 diabetes epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and preclinical course. We also discuss the influence of genetics on type 1 diabetes with differences across ancestries and the development and validation of GRS in various populations.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Risk Factors