Lorlatinib is currently the most advanced, potent and selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer in the clinic; however, diverse compound ALK mutations driving therapy resistance emerge. Here, we determine the spectrum of lorlatinib-resistant compound ALK mutations in patients, following treatment with lorlatinib, the majority of which involve ALK G1202R or I1171N/S/T. We further identify structurally diverse lorlatinib analogs that harbor differential selective profiles against G1202R versus I1171N/S/T compound ALK mutations. Structural analysis revealed increased potency against compound mutations through improved inhibition of either G1202R or I1171N/S/T mutant kinases. Overall, we propose a classification of heterogenous ALK compound mutations enabling the development of distinct therapeutic strategies for precision targeting following sequential tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.