Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Anlotinib as a Monotherapy and Combined Therapy for Advanced Sarcoma

Onco Targets Ther. 2022 Jun 14;15:669-679. doi: 10.2147/OTT.S365506. eCollection 2022.


Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of the long-term (> 12 months) administration of anlotinib as a monotherapy or combined therapy in patients with advanced sarcomas.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with advanced sarcomas with measurable target lesions since 2018. Twenty-two of the patients had taken anlotinib regularly for > 12 months. The patients' general information and the drug's clinical efficacy and toxicity data were collected and statistically analyzed using RECIST 1.1 to measure the target lesions and tumor PFS time as the main endpoints. We used a swimmer plot to observe the drug's efficacy and duration, and employed a waterfall plot to express the best treatment effect.

Results: The study included 14 male and 8 female patients, ranging in age from 14 to 75 (mean: 44.82) years. The primary diseases included alveolar soft part sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and others. The metastasis sites were the lungs in fifteen cases, lymph nodes in four cases, and multiple sites in three cases. Fourteen patients had previously undergone chemotherapy. The current therapy protocol was oral anlotinib alone for nine cases, combination chemotherapy for nine cases, and combination immunotherapy (anti-PD-1) for four cases. The highest clinical efficacy was complete remission (CR) in four (18.18%) cases, partial response (PR) in five (22.73%) cases, and stable disease in 13 (59.09%) cases, with an odds ratio of response of 40.91%. The mean PFS for the CR, PR, and stable disease groups was 16.50, 14.50, and 29.31 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The main adverse effects included hand-foot syndrome, hypertension, and leukopenia.

Conclusion: Anlotinib monotherapy or combination therapy can be more effective and safer for certain advanced sarcomas, with more extended maintenance and acceptable side effects. Clinical efficacy at the CR and PR levels might predict the long-term PFS in certain advanced sarcomas.

Keywords: advanced sarcoma; anlotinib; clinical efficacy; immunotherapy; targeted therapy.