The ELISA procedure was adapted for quantitation of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Using a yeast cytoplasmic antigen and sera from patients with proven paracoccidioidomycosis, we found that 66% of sera reacted at titers greater than or equal to 1:128. Titers of this magnitude were obtained only for 4-5% of sera from healthy blood donors, tuberculosis patients and patients with other systemic mycoses. The exception was sera from patients with histoplasmosis (36% had titers greater than or equal to 1:128). Follow-up of 10 paracoccidioidomycosis patients during the course of therapy indicated a gradual decrease in antibody titers. Because of the technical advantages of the ELISA procedure in comparison with the standard complement fixation test, the ELISA test has potential utility for the quantitative determination of antibodies in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.