Hereditary and sporadic renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene inactivation. Patients with VHL disease have an increased risk of RCC, leading to bilateral nephrectomy and dialysis. In patients with advanced RCC, no standard second-lines are available after progression to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and new agents are required to manage progression. HIFs have emerged as a promising target for metastatic RCC patients who have progressed to ICI-based combinations, as well as for those with RCC and VHL syndrome where the goal is to delay surgery and/or and preserve kidney function and avoid dialysis. This review describes the available evidence supporting the use of the small-molecule HIF-2 alpha inhibitor, belzutifan (MK-6482), as well as other new anti-HIF molecules that have demonstrated significant efficacy in VHL disease-related RCCs as well as for sporadic RCC that has progressed after the use of ICI-based combinations.
Keywords: Belzutifan, HIF; Hypoxia inducible factor; Renal cell carcinoma; Von Hippel-Lindau.
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