Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia among hospitalised children in Indonesia: a multicentre, prospective study

BMJ Open. 2022 Jun 21;12(6):e057957. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057957.


Objective: To identify aetiologies of childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on a comprehensive diagnostic approach.

Design: 'Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research-Pneumonia in Paediatrics (PEER-PePPeS)' study was an observational prospective cohort study conducted from July 2017 to September 2019.

Setting: Government referral teaching hospitals and satellite sites in three cities in Indonesia: Semarang, Yogyakarta and Tangerang.

Participants: Hospitalised children aged 2-59 months who met the criteria for pneumonia were eligible. Children were excluded if they had been hospitalised for >24 hours; had malignancy or history of malignancy; a history of long-term (>2 months) steroid therapy, or conditions that might interfere with compliance with study procedures.

Main outcomes measures: Causative bacterial, viral or mixed pathogen(s) for pneumonia were determined using microbiological, molecular and serological tests from routinely collected specimens (blood, sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs). We applied a previously published algorithm (PEER-PePPeS rules) to determine the causative pathogen(s).

Results: 188 subjects were enrolled. Based on our algorithm, 48 (25.5%) had a bacterial infection, 31 (16.5%) had a viral infection, 76 (40.4%) had mixed bacterial and viral infections, and 33 (17.6%) were unable to be classified. The five most common causative pathogens identified were Haemophilus influenzae non-type B (N=73, 38.8%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (N=51, 27.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N=43, 22.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (N=29, 15.4%) and Influenza virus (N=25, 13.3%). RSV and influenza virus diagnoses were highly associated with Indonesia's rainy season (November-March). The PCR assays on induced sputum (IS) specimens captured most of the pathogens identified in this study.

Conclusions: Our study found that H. influenzae non-type B and RSV were the most frequently identified pathogens causing hospitalised CAP among Indonesian children aged 2-59 months old. Our study also highlights the importance of PCR for diagnosis and by extension, appropriate use of antimicrobials.

Trail registration number: NCT03366454.

Keywords: epidemiology; infectious diseases; paediatrics.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Hospitalized
  • Child, Preschool
  • Community-Acquired Infections* / microbiology
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b*
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Pneumonia* / etiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human*
  • Virus Diseases* / complications

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03366454