Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination has become a major part of the strategy to reduce Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) numbers worldwide. To date, vaccinations based on several mechanisms have been used clinically, although relapse of existent glomerulonephritis presenting as gross hematuria, and occurrence of de novo glomerulonephritis have been reported.
Case presentation: We report the first sibling cases newly diagnosed as immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy after the second dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. 15- and 18-year-old men presented with gross hematuria following the second dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Pfizer, BNT162b2) received on the same day. Pathological findings of each kidney biopsy specimen were consistent with IgA nephropathy. Gross hematuria in both cases spontaneously recovered within several days.
Conclusions: These cases indicate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination might trigger de novo IgA nephropathy or stimulate its relapse, and also highlight the necessity of understanding the immunological responses to the novel mRNA vaccines in patients with kidney diseases.
Keywords: COVID-19; Gross hematuria; IgA nephropathy; SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; Sibling.
© 2022. The Author(s).