Objective: The HIV preexposure prophylaxis optimization intervention (PrEP-OI) study evaluated the efficacy of a panel management intervention using PrEP coordinators and a web-based panel management tool to support healthcare providers in optimizing PrEP prescription and ongoing PrEP care.
Design: The PrEP-OI study was a stepped-wedge randomized clinical trial conducted across 10 San Francisco Department of Public Health primary care sites between November 2018 and September 2019. Each month, clinics one-by-one initiated PrEP-OI in random order until all sites received the intervention by the study team.
Methods: The primary outcome was the number of PrEP prescriptions per month. Secondary outcomes compared pre- and postintervention periods on whether PrEP was discussed and whether PrEP-related counseling (e.g., HIV risk assessment, risk reduction counseling, PrEP initiation/continuation assessment) was conducted. Prescription and clinical data were abstracted from the electronic health records. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and risk ratios (RR) to estimate the intervention effect on primary and secondary outcomes.
Results: The number of PrEP prescriptions across clinics increased from 1.85/month (standard deviation [SD] = 2.55) preintervention to 2.44/month (SD = 3.44) postintervention (IRR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.73; P = 0.021). PrEP-related discussions during clinic visits (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004), HIV risk assessment (RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.14-1.72; P = 0.001), and risk reduction counseling (RR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03-1.30; P = 0.011) increased from the pre- to the postintervention period. Assessment of PrEP initiation/continuation increased over time during the postintervention period (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.100).
Conclusions: A panel management intervention using PrEP coordinators and a web-based panel management tool increased PrEP prescribing and improved PrEP-related counseling in safety-net primary care clinics.
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