Bioengineered RNA Therapy in Patient-Derived Organoids and Xenograft Mouse Models

Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2521:191-206. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2441-8_10.


Therapeutic RNAs, such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), aptamers, small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRs or miRNAs), messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and guide RNAs (gRNAs), represent a novel class of modalities that not only increase the molecular diversity of medications but also expand the range of druggable targets. To develop noncoding RNA therapeutics for the treatment of cancer diseases, we have established a novel robust RNA bioengineering platform to achieve high-yield and large-scale production of true biologic RNA agents, which are proven to be functional in the control of target gene expression and effective in the management of tumor progression in various models. Herein, we describe the methods for bioengineered RNA (BioRNA or BERA) therapy in patient-derived organoids (PDOs) in vitro and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models in vivo. The efficacy of a BioRNA, miR-1291, in the inhibition of pancreatic cancer PDO and PDX growth is exemplified in this chapter.

Keywords: Bioengineer; Cancer; Noncoding RNA; PDO; PDX; Therapy; microRNA; siRNA.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Heterografts
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • MicroRNAs* / therapeutic use
  • Organoids*
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • RNA, Untranslated / genetics


  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • RNA, Untranslated