Differential microRNA (miRNA or miR) regulation is linked to the development and progress of many diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is well-established that miRNAs are involved in the differentiation, maturation, and functional control of immune cells. miRNAs modulate inflammatory cascades and affect the extracellular matrix, tight junctions, cellular hemostasis, and microbiota. This review summarizes current knowledge of differentially expressed miRNAs in mucosal tissues and peripheral blood of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. We combined comprehensive literature curation with computational meta-analysis of publicly available high-throughput datasets to obtain a consensus set of miRNAs consistently differentially expressed in mucosal tissues. We further describe the role of the most relevant differentially expressed miRNAs in IBD, extract their potential targets involved in IBD, and highlight their diagnostic and therapeutic potential for future investigations.
Keywords: Crohn’s disease; Transcriptomics; inflammatory bowel disase; miRNA; ulcerative colitis.
Copyright © 2022 Yarani, Shojaeian, Palasca, Doncheva, Jensen, Gorodkin and Pociot.