Elevated Levels of Urinary Biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7 Predict Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates after Congenital Heart Surgery

J Pediatr Intensive Care. 2021 Dec 13;11(2):153-158. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1740359. eCollection 2022 Jun.


Objectives This article investigated the utility of urine biomarkers tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) in identifying acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates after congenital heart surgery (CHS). TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7 are cell cycle arrest proteins detected in urine during periods of kidney stress/injury. Methods We conducted a single-center, prospective study between September 2017 and May 2019 with neonates undergoing CHS requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Urine samples were analyzed using NephroCheck prior to surgery and 6, 12, 24, and 96 hours post-CPB. All patients were evaluated using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the medians of the [TIMP-2*IGFBP-7] values in the AKIN negative and positive groups at each time point. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to measure how well the [TIMP-2*IGFBP-7] values predict AKIN status. Results Thirty-six patients were included. No patients met the AKIN criteria for AKI preoperatively. Postoperatively, 19 patients (53%) met the AKIN criteria for AKI diagnosis: 13 (36%) stage 1, 5 (14%) stage 2, and 1 (3%) stage 3. None required renal replacement therapy. At the 24-hour time points, patients who met the AKIN criteria for AKI had a statistically significantly higher [TIMP-2*IGFBP7] values than the patients without AKI (1.1 vs. 0.27 [ng/mL] 2 /1,000) at 24 hours (adj- p = 0.0019). Conclusion AKI is a serious complication associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. [TIMP-2*IGFBP-7] urinary level 24 hours after CPB is a good predictor of AKI in this population.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; biomarkers; cardiopulmonary bypass; heart defects, congenital; insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2.