Growing Teratoma Syndrome in the Setting of Sarcoidosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Curr Oncol. 2022 Jun 7;29(6):4148-4154. doi: 10.3390/curroncol29060331.


Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is rare and can mimic disease recurrence in patients with a history of immature teratoma. Benign hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy found on staging and surveillance computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) may lead to the presumption of metastatic malignancy. We report a case of a 38 year old with mixed mature and immature teratomas who developed new peritoneal masses after adjuvant chemotherapy despite a normalization of tumor markers. In addition to low FDG uptake observed in these peritoneal masses, a PET scan showed hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy and pulmonary and spleen lesions suggesting widespread metastases. Subsequent surgical resection confirmed a mixed pathology with GTS and sarcoidosis. We reviewed the current literature evidence of GTS and sarcoidosis as a benign cause of lymphadenopathy in cancer patients. We emphasize the importance of a tissue diagnosis before instituting therapy for presumed cancer recurrence to avoid potentially fatal diagnostic traps and management errors. A multiple disciplinary team approach is imperative in managing patients with suspected recurrent immature teratomas.

Keywords: growing teratoma syndrome; immature teratoma; sarcoidosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Lymphadenopathy*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Sarcoidosis* / complications
  • Sarcoidosis* / diagnosis
  • Syndrome
  • Teratoma* / drug therapy
  • Teratoma* / therapy

Grants and funding

No funding was obtained.