Initial Displacement and Stress Distribution of Upper Central Incisor Extrusion with Clear Aligners and Various Shapes of Composite Attachments Using the Finite Element Method

Dent J (Basel). 2022 Jun 20;10(6):114. doi: 10.3390/dj10060114.


A clear aligner is an esthetic and more comfortable option for patients who need orthodontic treatment. However, some types of tooth movement, such as extrusion, are difficult with this tool. Therefore, composite attachments have been suggested to improve tooth movement. This study aims to evaluate the initial displacement and stress distribution during upper central incisor extrusion using the conventional composite attachments. Maxillary models with the upper teeth, clear aligners, and composite attachments placed on the labial surface of the upper right central incisor were constructed. Four models were created to simulate upper central incisor extrusion: (1) without any composite attachment; (2) rectangular beveled attachment; (3) ellipsoid attachment; and (4) horizontal rectangular attachment. Clear aligners were designed to perform upper central incisor extrusion. The constructed models were analyzed using the finite element method. Initial displacement and stress distribution were analyzed. Output analysis found that the upper right central incisor in the model with a horizontal rectangular attachment had the greatest extrusive movement, followed by the model with ellipsoid attachment and the model with beveled attachment. Maximum compressive stress was seen at the cervical region of the composite attachment. Composite attachments including horizontal rectangular attachment, ellipsoid attachment, and rectangular beveled attachment can be used to perform upper central incisor extrusion.

Keywords: clear aligners; composite attachment; finite element method; orthodontics.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.