Importance: It is unclear whether ERBB2-low breast cancer should be considered an individual biologic subtype distinct from ERBB2-0 breast cancer.
Objective: To investigate whether low ERBB2 expression is associated with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis among patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study was conducted using data from a prospectively maintained institutional database on all consecutive patients with breast cancer undergoing surgery between January 2016 and March 2021 at Dana-Farber Brigham Cancer Center. The study included 5235 patients with stage I through III, ERBB2-negative invasive breast cancer. Tumors were classified as ERBB2-low if they had an ERBB2 immunohistochemical (IHC) score of 1+ or 2+ with negative in situ hybridization assay and ERBB2-0 if they had an ERBB2 IHC score of 0. Data were analyzed from September 2021 through January 2022.
Exposures: Standard treatment according to institutional guidelines.
Main outcomes and measures: Comparison of clinicopathologic characteristics and disease outcomes (pathologic complete response rate [pCR], disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, and overall survival) between patients with ERBB2-low and ERBB2-0 breast cancer.
Results: Among 5235 patients with ERBB2-negative invasive breast cancer (5191 [99.2%] women; median [range] age at primary surgery, 59.0 [21.0-95.0] years), 2917 patients (55.7%) and 2318 patients (44.3%) had ERBB2-low and ERBB2-0 tumors, respectively. Expression of HR was significantly more common among ERBB2-low compared with ERBB2-0 tumors (2643 patients [90.6%] vs 1895 patients [81.8%]; P < .001). The rate of ERBB2-low tumors increased progressively, from 296 of 739 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (40.1%) to 31 of 67 ER-low (ie, ER 1%-9%) tumors (46.3%), 37 of 67 ER-moderate (ie, ER, 10%-49%) tumors (55.2%), 2047 of 3542 ER-high (ie, ER, 50%-95%) tumors (57.8%), and 499 of 803 ER-very high (ie, ER > 95%) tumors (62.1%) (P < .001). Among 675 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, those with ERBB2-0 tumors experienced higher pCR rates (95 patients [26.8%] vs 53 patients [16.6%]; P = .002). However, there were no statistically significant differences in pCR rate between ERBB2-low and ERBB2-0 tumors when separately analyzing HR-positive, ER-low, HR-positive without ER-low, or TNBC tumors. In exploratory survival analysis, no differences by ERBB2-low expression in disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, or overall survival were observed among patients with HR-positive tumors or TNBC.
Conclusions and relevance: The results of this cohort study did not support the interpretation of ERBB2-low breast cancer as a distinct biologic subtype. ERBB2-low expression was positively associated with level of ER expression, and ER-low tumors were enriched among ERBB2-0 tumors, suggesting that, given the worse prognosis of ER-low tumors, they may be associated with confounding of prognostic analyses of ERBB2-low expression.