Critical Evaluation of the Scientific Literature Concerning Bone Graft Alternatives in Spinal Surgery and Focus on Bioceramics

Surg Technol Int. 2022 Jun 23:41:sti41/1582. doi: 10.52198/22.STI.41.NS1582. Online ahead of print.


To improve solid spinal fusion while avoiding the morbidity associated with autograft harvesting procedures, numerous alternatives have been investigated, including allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), cell-based therapies and growth factors (i.e., bone morphogenetic proteins, platelet concentrates), and ceramic-based biomaterials. Even though all of these approaches have the potential to improve the outcome of spinal fusion procedures, most of them have not yet been validated by evidence-based clinical results, and thus they are not strongly advisable for clinical use, in addition to being particularly expensive. Here, we give an overview of the current clinical evidence for bone graft alternatives for spine surgery procedures. We will also evaluate the pros and cons of their use and briefly review the more relevant literature.