LTα, TNF, and ILC3 in Peyer's Patch Organogenesis

Cells. 2022 Jun 19;11(12):1970. doi: 10.3390/cells11121970.


TNF and LTα are structurally related cytokines of the TNF superfamily. Their genes are located in close proximity to each other and to the Ltb gene within the TNF/LT locus inside MHC. Unlike Ltb, transcription of Tnf and of Lta is tightly controlled, with the Tnf gene being an immediate early gene that is rapidly induced in response to various inflammatory stimuli. Genes of the TNF/LT locus play a crucial role in lymphoid tissue organogenesis, although some aspects of their specific contribution remain controversial. Here, we present new findings and discuss the distinct contribution of TNF produced by ILC3 cells to Peyer's patch organogenesis.

Keywords: Peyer’s patches; TNF; innate lymphoid cells; lymphoid tissue organogenesis; lymphotoxin.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Lymphoid Tissue
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Organogenesis / genetics
  • Peyer's Patches*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors / metabolism


  • Lymphotoxin-alpha
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors

Grants and funding

The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant #19-75-30032). Breeding and genotyping of multiple mouse lines were supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (grant #075-15-2019-1660). This research has been conducted in part in the frame of the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Educational School of Moscow University “Molecular Technologies of the Living Systems and Synthetic Biology”.