Enhancing Night and Day Circadian Contrast through Sleep Education in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Biology (Basel). 2022 Jun 10;11(6):893. doi: 10.3390/biology11060893.


Background: Evidence supports a causal relationship between circadian disturbance and impaired glucose homeostasis.

Methods: To determine the effect of an educational intervention delivered by primary care nurses to improve sleep hygiene, a parallel, open-label clinical trial in subjects aged 18 and older with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed. Study variables were sex, age, fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep duration and efficiency, body mass index, antidiabetic treatment, diet and physical exercise. An individual informative educational intervention was carried out following a bidirectional feedback method. The intervention aimed to develop skills to improve sleep through nine simple tips. An analysis of covariance was performed on all the mean centred outcome variables controlling for the respective baseline scores.

Results: In the intervention group, PSQI dropped, the duration and quality of sleep increased, and a decrease in fasting glucose and in HbA1c levels was observed.

Conclusion: The proposed intervention is effective for improving sleep quality, length and efficiency, and for decreasing fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in only 3 months. These findings support the importance of sleep and circadian rhythm education focused on improving IFG and T2DM.

Keywords: blood glucose; circadian rhythm; glucose metabolism disorders; glycated haemoglobin A1c; sleep.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.