Motivations and Personal Traits Can Predict Self-Efficacy of the Clown Therapist: A Descriptive Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jun 9;19(12):7058. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19127058.


The individual and collective perception of self-efficacy in clown therapists is fundamental in order to be able to be active, restrained, energetic and defocused, if necessary, without being overwhelmed by any problems patients might have. The present study evaluated both the incidence of motivational and dispositional functions on the level of perceived self-efficacy with a sample of 259 Italian clown therapists who were administered The Volunteer Self-Efficacy Scale, the Volunteer Process Model and the Italy Personality Inventory. The significance of a hierarchical linear regression model of perceived self-efficacy was tested. The results showed that the value orientation of the operators mainly influenced the level of perceived self-efficacy, that is, the search for actions with a high social meaning, rather than the orientation towards situations and experiences that allow one to expand one's knowledge and promote one's own person. Profiles with higher perceived self-efficacy were associated with the trait of dynamism and conscientiousness, while a person's vulnerability was found to be a significant negative predictor of self-efficacy. An additional significant predictor was the experience of the clown therapist. The results of the study also showed a positive and functional role of the synergy conferred by teamwork. The group mitigates the emotional difficulties of the individual and supports him/her by orienting him/her technically and compensating for any inexperience in the field of animation in sensitive contexts, such as hospital wards with serious and vulnerable patients, such as children.

Keywords: clown therapist; motivation; personality; self-efficacy; teamwork.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motivation*
  • Personality
  • Personality Inventory
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Volunteers

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.