May Staphylococcus lugdunensis Be an Etiological Factor of Chronic Maxillary Sinuses Infection?

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 9;23(12):6450. doi: 10.3390/ijms23126450.


Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an opportunistic pathogen found in the healthy human skin microbiome bacterial community that is able to cause infections of diverse localization, manifestation, and course, including laryngological infections, such as necrotizing sinusitis. Chronic maxillary sinusitis is a disease present in up to one third of European and American populations, and its etiology is not fully described. Within this study, we aimed to characterize 18 S. lugdunensis strains recovered from maxillary sinuses and evaluate them as etiological agents of chronic disease. We performed MLST analysis, the complex analysis of both phenotypic and genetic virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and biofilm formation assay for the detection of biofilm-associated genes. Altogether, S. lugdunensis strains were clustered into eight different STs, and we demonstrated several virulence factors associated with the chronic disease. All tested strains were able to produce biofilm in vitro with numerous strains with a very strong ability, and overall, they were mostly susceptible to antibiotics, although we found resistance to fosfomycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin in several strains. We believe that further in-depth analysis of S. lugdunensis strains from different niches, including the nasal one, should be performed in the future in order to reduce infection rate and broaden the knowledge about this opportunistic pathogen that is gaining attention.

Keywords: MLST; biofilm; coagulase-negative staphylococci; laryngological infections; virulence factors.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Maxillary Sinusitis* / drug therapy
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Staphylococcal Infections* / drug therapy
  • Staphylococcus lugdunensis* / genetics
  • Virulence Factors / genetics


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Virulence Factors

Grants and funding

The APC was funded by MML Centre, Warsaw.