Stem Cell Biomarkers and Tumorigenesis in Gastric Cancer

J Pers Med. 2022 Jun 3;12(6):929. doi: 10.3390/jpm12060929.


Stomach cancer has a high mortality, which is partially caused by an absence of suitable biomarkers to allow detection of the initiation stages of cancer progression. Thus, identification of critical biomarkers associated with gastric cancer (GC) is required to advance its clinical diagnoses and treatment. Recent studies using tracing models for lineage analysis of GC stem cells indicate that the cell fate decision of the gastric stem cells might be an important issue for stem cell plasticity. They include leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5+), Cholecystokinin receptor 2 (Cckr2+), and axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2+) as the stem cell markers in the antrum, Trefoil Factor 2 (TFF2+), Mist1+ stem cells, and Troy+ chief cells in the corpus. By contrast, Estrogen receptor 1 (eR1), Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (Lrig1), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2), and B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1) are rich in both the antrum and corpus regions. These markers might help to identify the cell-lineage identity and analyze the plasticity of each stem cell population. Thus, identification of marker genes for the development of GC and its environment is critical for the clinical application of cancer stem cells in the prevention of stomach cancers.

Keywords: biomarkers; cancer stem cells; gastric cancers; organoids; translational research.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This work was supported by grants from the Taiwanese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 110-2314-B-037-141; MOST 110-2320-B-037-028), the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI-EX109-10720SI), Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (SA10803C; KMUH 110-10R; KMUH 110-0R86; KMUH-DK(A)111001), and Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU-M106001; KMU-TC108A02).