Despite remarkable advances in the clinical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs), residual rotational instability of the knee joint remains a major concern. Since the anterolateral ligament (ALL) on the knee joint has been "rediscovered", the role of anterolateral structures, including ALL and deep iliotibial band, as secondary stabilizers of anterolateral rotatory instability has gained interest. This interest has led to the resurgence of anterolateral procedures combined with ACLRs to restore rotational stability in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiencies. However, the difference in concepts between anterolateral ligament reconstructions (ALLRs) as anatomical reconstruction and lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LETs) as non-anatomical reinforcement has been conflicting in present literature. This study aimed to review the anatomy and biomechanics of anterolateral structures, surgical techniques, and the clinical outcomes of anterolateral procedures, including LET and ALLR, in patients with ACL deficiencies.
Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; anterolateral ligament; anterolateral ligament reconstruction; knee joint; lateral extra-articular tenodesis.