How Diet and Physical Activity Modulate Gut Microbiota: Evidence, and Perspectives

Nutrients. 2022 Jun 14;14(12):2456. doi: 10.3390/nu14122456.


Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, contributing to human health. Nevertheless, some factors (sex, age, lifestyle, physical activity, drug-based therapies, diet, etc.) affect its composition and functionality, linked to pathologies and immunological diseases. Concerning diet, it interacts with microorganisms, leading to beneficial or detrimental outcomes for the health of host. On the other hand, physical activity is known to be useful for preventing and, sometimes, treating several diseases of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, respiratory, and muscular systems. This paper focuses on diet and physical activity presenting the current knowledge about how different diets (Western, ketogenic, vegan, gluten free, Mediterranean) as well as different types of exercise (intensive, endurance, aerobic) could shape gut microbiota.

Keywords: Mediterranean diet; endurance fitness; gut microbiota; ketogenic diet; physical exercise.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Diet, Vegan
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome* / physiology
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Status