Cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITSs) such as platooning rely on a robust and timely network that may not always be available in sufficient quality. Out of the box hybrid networks only partly eliminate shortcomings: mutual interference avoidance, data load balancing, and data dissemination must be sophisticated. Lacking network quality may lead to safety bottlenecks that require that the distance between the following vehicles be increased. However, increasing gaps result in efficiency loss and additionally compromise safety as the platoon is split into smaller parts by traffic: maneuvers, e.g., cut-in maneuvers bear safety risks, and consequently lower efficiency even further. However, platoons, especially if they are very long, can negatively affect the flow of traffic. This mainly applies on entry or exit lanes, on narrow lanes, or in intersection areas: automated and non-automated vehicles in traffic do affect each other and are interdependent. To account for varying network quality and enable the coexistence of non-automated and platooned traffic, we present in this paper a new concept of platooning that unites ad hoc-in form of IEEE 802.11p-and cellular communication: feudalistic platooning. Platooned vehicles are divided into smaller groups, inseparable by surrounding traffic, and are assigned roles that determine the communication flow between vehicles, other groups and platoons, and infrastructure. Critical vehicle data are redundantly sent while the ad hoc network is only used for this purpose. The remaining data are sent-relying on cellular infrastructure once it is available-directly between vehicles with or without the use of network involvement for scheduling. The presented approach was tested in simulations using Omnet++ and Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO).
Keywords: C-ITS; C-V2X; IEEE 802.11p; Omnet++; SUMO; platoon management; platooning.