Fazirsiran for Liver Disease Associated with Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

N Engl J Med. 2022 Aug 11;387(6):514-524. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2205416. Epub 2022 Jun 25.


Background: Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from carriage of a homozygous SERPINA1 "Z" mutation (proteinase inhibitor [PI] ZZ). The Z allele produces a mutant AAT protein called Z-AAT, which accumulates in hepatocytes and can lead to progressive liver disease and fibrosis. This open-label, phase 2 trial investigated the safety and efficacy of fazirsiran, an RNA interference therapeutic, in patients with liver disease associated with AAT deficiency.

Methods: We assigned adults with the PI ZZ genotype and liver fibrosis to receive fazirsiran at a dose of 200 mg (cohorts 1 [4 patients] and 2 [8 patients]) or 100 mg (cohort 1b [4 patients]) subcutaneously on day 1 and week 4 and then every 12 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline to week 24 (cohorts 1 and 1b) or week 48 (cohort 2) in liver Z-AAT concentrations, which were measured by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: All the patients had reduced accumulation of Z-AAT in the liver (median reduction, 83% at week 24 or 48). The nadir in serum was a reduction of approximately 90%, and treatment was also associated with a reduction in histologic globule burden (from a mean score of 7.4 [scores range from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating a greater globule burden] at baseline to 2.3 at week 24 or 48). All cohorts had reductions in liver enzyme concentrations. Fibrosis regression was observed in 7 of 15 patients and fibrosis progression in 2 of 15 patients after 24 or 48 weeks. There were no adverse events leading to trial or drug discontinuation. Four serious adverse events (viral myocarditis, diverticulitis, dyspnea, and vestibular neuronitis) resolved.

Conclusions: In this small trial, fazirsiran was associated with a strong reduction of Z-AAT concentrations in the serum and liver and concurrent improvements in liver enzyme concentrations. (Funded by Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals; AROAAT-2002 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03946449.).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Genotype
  • Hepatocytes / drug effects
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver Cirrhosis* / drug therapy
  • Liver Cirrhosis* / etiology
  • Liver Cirrhosis* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • RNAi Therapeutics* / adverse effects
  • RNAi Therapeutics* / methods
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency* / complications
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency* / drug therapy
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency* / genetics
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin* / analysis
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin* / blood
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin* / genetics


  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03946449