Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare pediatric brain tumor with abnormalities in SMARCB1 located in 22q11.2. We report a case of AT/RT associated with Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) characterized by congenital developmental disorder, mental retardation, and ring chromosome 22 with 22q13.3-qter depletion, for which we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A 4-year-old girl with a developmental disability was referred to our hospital due to dysphoria. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a 5-cm well-demarcated mass that extended bilaterally in the frontal lobes. G-banding was performed preoperatively due to a history of developmental retardation. Ring chromosome 22 and deletion of 22q13.3-qter were observed, and she was diagnosed with PMS. She underwent gross total resection of the tumor, and the pathological diagnosis was AT/RT. WGS showed somatic SMARCB1 mutation (p.R201X) and somatic loss of the entire chromosome 22 in the tumor, but not in the blood sample. WGS confirmed previously unreported BRCA2 mutations, 6q loss, and 14q acquisition during tumor progression, but no other significant findings associated with tumor progression. The present case is discussed with reference to a systematic review of previous reports of AT/RT associated with PMS. PMS patients with ring chromosome 22 should be carefully followed up for AT/RT occurrence.
Keywords: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; Brain tumor; Phelan–McDermid syndrome; Ring chromosome 22; Whole-genome sequencing.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Japan Society of Brain Tumor Pathology.