Feminization of the forehead: contour changing to improve female aesthetics

Plast Reconstr Surg. 1987 May;79(5):701-13. doi: 10.1097/00006534-198705000-00003.


Anthropologists have identified those characteristics which enable them to differentiate the male from the female skull. Some women have masculine skeletal characteristics which, if changed, would improve their facial appearance. Changing the skeletal configuration through bony contouring of the craniofacial skeleton for aesthetic purposes is a natural spinoff of craniomaxillofacial surgery. Techniques for sculpturing the masculine characteristics present in the foreheads of some females are discussed. The deformity has been divided into three subdivisions. Group 1 patients can be treated through bony contouring alone; group 2 patients require bony contouring in conjunction with a methyl methacrylate cranioplasty; and group 3 are those patients with a more severe deformity requiring osteotomies. The technique, results, complications, and patient acceptance are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Esthetics
  • Female
  • Forehead / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methylmethacrylates
  • Osteotomy
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Skull / surgery
  • Surgery, Plastic / methods*


  • Methylmethacrylates