A chromosome-level genome of Brachymystax tsinlingensis provides resources and insights into salmonids evolution

G3 (Bethesda). 2022 Jul 29;12(8):jkac162. doi: 10.1093/g3journal/jkac162.


Brachymystax tsinlingensis Li, 1966 is an endangered freshwater fish with economic, ecological, and scientific values. Study of the genome of B. tsinlingensis might be particularly insightful given that this is the only Brachymystax species with genome. We present a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly and protein-coding gene annotation for B. tsinlingensis with Illumina short reads, Nanopore long reads, Hi-C sequencing reads, and RNA-seq reads from 5 tissues/organs. The final chromosome-level genome size is 2,031,709,341 bp with 40 chromosomes. We found that the salmonids have a unique GC content and codon usage, have a slower evolutionary rate, and possess specific positively selected genes. We also confirmed the salmonids have undergone a whole-genome duplication event and a burst of transposon-mediated repeat expansion, and lost HoxAbβ Hox cluster, highly expressed genes in muscle may partially explain the migratory habits of B. tsinlingensis. The high-quality B. tsinlingensis assembled genome could provide a valuable reference for the study of other salmonids as well as aid the conservation of this endangered species.

Keywords: Brachymystax tsinlingensis; chromosome-level genome; evolutionary rate; positively selected genes; salmonids.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Composition
  • Chromosomes / genetics
  • Genome Size
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Phylogeny
  • Salmonidae* / genetics