Long-Term Dietary Effects on Human Gut Microbiota Composition Employing Shotgun Metagenomics Data Analysis

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2023 Dec;67(24):e2101098. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.202101098. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Abstract

Scope: The gut microbiome regulates various metabolic pathways in the host and its dysbiosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. One of the major factors triggering gut microbiome establishment is diet. This study aims to unravel interactions and changes between diet and gut microbiome over a period of 3 years.

Methods and results: This study investigates the relation between diet and the microbiome of 75 individuals over a 3-year time period. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is performed to profile gut microbial composition and function. This study shows that there are significant changes in gut microbiome taxonomy and functional composition between two time points. Whereas microbial taxonomy is found to be highly individualized, overall microbial functions stay relatively stable. Moreover, in silico metabolic modeling of microbial communities indicates that changes in dietary intake of medium-chain saturated fatty acids is accompanied by an altered utilization of amino acids by the gut microbiome.

Conclusion: The study design allows us to validate functional stability within the gut microbiome of healthy subjects over a 3-year period. However, enduring changes in nutrition such as increased alcohol consumption or decreased intake of vegetables come along with enhanced microbial functions that are associated with disease etiology.

Keywords: diet; longitudinal; metabolic; microbiome.

MeSH terms

  • Diet
  • Feces
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Metagenome
  • Metagenomics / methods
  • Microbiota*