Microtubules are dynamic polymers consisting of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. The initial polymerization process, called microtubule nucleation, occurs spontaneously via αβ-tubulin. Since a large energy barrier prevents microtubule nucleation in cells, the γ-tubulin ring complex is recruited to the centrosome to overcome the nucleation barrier. However, a considerable number of microtubules can polymerize independently of the centrosome in various cell types. Here, we present evidence that the minus-end-binding calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 2 (CAMSAP2) serves as a strong nucleator for microtubule formation by significantly reducing the nucleation barrier. CAMSAP2 co-condensates with αβ-tubulin via a phase separation process, producing plenty of nucleation intermediates. Microtubules then radiate from the co-condensates, resulting in aster-like structure formation. CAMSAP2 localizes at the co-condensates and decorates the radiating microtubule lattices to some extent. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that CAMSAP2 supports microtubule nucleation and growth by organizing a nucleation centre as well as by stabilizing microtubule intermediates and growing microtubules.
Keywords: CAMSAP; E. coli; LLPS; TIRF; cell biology; cryo-EM; microtubule; molecular biophysics; mouse; nucleation; structural biology.
Cells are able to hold their shape thanks to tube-like structures called microtubules that are made of hundreds of tubulin proteins. Microtubules are responsible for maintaining the uneven distribution of molecules throughout the cell, a phenomenon known as polarity that allows cells to differentiate into different types with various roles. A protein complex called the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) is necessary for microtubules to form. This protein helps bind the tubulin proteins together and stabilises microtubules. However, recent research has found that in highly polarized cells such as neurons, which have highly specialised regions, microtubules can form without γ-TuRC. Searching for the proteins that could be filling in for γ-TuRC in these cells some evidence has suggested that a group known as CAMSAPs may be involved, but it is not known how. To characterize the role of CAMSAPs, Imasaki, Kikkawa et al. studied how one of these proteins, CAMSAP2, interacts with tubulins. To do this, they reconstituted both CAMSAP2 and tubulins using recombinant biotechnology and mixed them in solution. These experiments showed that CAMSAP2 can help form microtubules by bringing together their constituent proteins so that they can bind to each other more easily. Once microtubules start to form, CAMSAP2 continues to bind to them, stabilizing them and enabling them to grow to full size. These results shed light on how polarity is established in cells such as neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. Additionally, the ability to observe intermediate structures during microtubule formation can provide insights into the processes that these structures are involved in.
© 2022, Imasaki, Kikkawa et al.