Once-daily dolutegravir versus darunavir plus cobicistat in adults at the time of primary HIV-1 infection: the OPTIPRIM2-ANRS 169 randomized, open-label, Phase 3 trial

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2022 Aug 25;77(9):2506-2515. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkac207.


Background: Whether integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) can decrease HIV-1 DNA levels more rapidly than boosted PIs during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) is unknown. We hypothesized that once-daily dolutegravir/tenofovir/emtricitabine could reduce the viral reservoir through rapid viral replication control further than once-daily darunavir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine.

Methods: The OPTIPRIM2-ANRS 169 study was a randomized (1:1), open-label, multicentre trial in adults with ≤5 or ≤3 HIV antibodies detected, respectively, by western blot or immunoblot in the last 10 days. The primary endpoint was total HIV-1 DNA levels in PBMCs at Week 48 (W48) adjusted for baseline levels. The main secondary endpoint was HIV-1 RNA level decrease.

Results: Between April 2017 and August 2018, 101 patients were included from 31 hospitals. Most patients were men (93%), the median age was 36 years and 17% were Fiebig stage ≤3. The median (IQR) plasma HIV-1 RNA and DNA levels were, respectively, 5.8 (5.0-6.6) and 3.87 (3.52-4.15) log10 copies/million PBMCs. The median (IQR) decreases in HIV-1 DNA levels at W48 were -1.48 (-1.74 to -1.06) and -1.39 (-1.55 to -0.98) log10 copies/million PBMCs in the dolutegravir and darunavir/cobicistat groups, respectively (P = 0.52). Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were <50 copies/mL in 24% versus 0% of patients in the dolutegravir and darunavir/cobicistat groups at W4, 55% versus 2% at W8, 67% versus 17% at W12, and 94% versus 90% at W48, respectively.

Conclusions: Dolutegravir-based and darunavir-based regimens initiated during PHI strongly and similarly decreased the blood reservoir size. Considering the rapid viral suppression during a period of high HIV-1 transmission risk, dolutegravir-based regimens are a major first-line option.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Cobicistat / therapeutic use
  • Darunavir / therapeutic use
  • Emtricitabine / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV-1*
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxazines
  • Piperazines
  • Pyridones / therapeutic use
  • RNA / therapeutic use
  • Tenofovir / therapeutic use
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • Oxazines
  • Piperazines
  • Pyridones
  • RNA
  • Tenofovir
  • dolutegravir
  • Emtricitabine
  • Cobicistat
  • Darunavir

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