Human monkeypox is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus with presentation similar to smallpox. Monkeypox is transmitted incidentally to humans when they encounter infected animals. Reports have shown that the virus can also be transmitted through direct contact (sexual or skin-to-skin), respiratory droplets, and via fomites such as towels and bedding. Multiple medical countermeasures are stockpiled for orthopoxviruses such as monkeypox. Two vaccines are currently available, JYNNEOSTM (live, replication incompetent vaccinia virus) and ACAM2000® (live, replication competent vaccinia virus). While most cases of monkeypox will have mild and self-limited disease, with supportive care being typically sufficient, antivirals (e.g. tecovirimat, brincidofovir, cidofovir) and vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) are available as treatments. Antivirals can be considered in severe disease, immunocompromised patients, pediatrics, pregnant and breastfeeding women, complicated lesions, and when lesions appear near the mouth, eyes, and genitals. The purpose of this short review is to describe each of these countermeasures.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.