A comprehensive analysis of the association between placental pathology and recurrent preterm birth

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Jun 25;S0002-9378(22)00484-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.06.030. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Histologic examination of the placenta is often performed after preterm birth. Although placental examination cannot change the index pregnancy outcome, it may inform the risk of adverse outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy. Previous research has examined the association between individual histologic lesions and pregnancy outcomes without consistent results.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the independent contributions of the major placental pathology histologic types to recurrent preterm birth.

Study design: This was a retrospective cohort study of deliveries at a tertiary care center from January 2009 to March 2018. Individuals with ≥2 births, an index birth of <37 weeks of gestation, and a placental pathology report from the index pregnancy were included. The presence of maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, acute inflammation, and chronic inflammation was extracted from the pathology reports for each index placenta and classified as none, low grade, or high grade. A log-binomial model incorporating all 4 placental pathology histologic types, index gestational age, race, and maternal age was used to estimate the associations between each placental histologic type and risk of recurrent preterm birth. Moreover, 2-way interaction terms were studied among placental histologic types. In addition, 2 stratified analyses were completed on the basis of characteristics of the index preterm birth: (1) by late preterm (gestational age of 34-36 weeks) vs early-to-moderate preterm birth (<34 weeks) and (2) a subgroup analysis of those with spontaneous preterm birth.

Results: A total of 924 pregnancy pairs met the inclusion criteria. Only high-grade chronic inflammation was independently associated with an increased risk of recurrent preterm birth (adjusted risk ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.81). Stratified analysis by gestational age group demonstrated maternal vascular malperfusion was associated with recurrent preterm birth only among those with early preterm birth (adjusted risk ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.93). Among participants with spontaneous preterm labor, no association was found between pathology histologic types and risk of preterm birth.

Conclusion: Among index preterm pregnancies, high-grade chronic placental inflammation was associated with recurrent preterm birth. Low-grade maternal vascular malperfusion was associated with recurrent preterm birth only among those with an early or moderate index preterm birth (<34 weeks of gestation). These findings may be useful in determining the risk profile for individual patients and may generate hypotheses as to the pathogenesis of recurrent preterm birth.

Keywords: acute chorioamnionitis; acute inflammatory lesions; adverse pregnancy outcomes; chronic chorioamnionitis; chronic inflammatory lesions; fetal vascular malperfusion; funisitis; maternal vascular lesions of malperfusion; placental pathology; preterm birth; villitis of unknown etiology.