Background: In the phase II multicohort CheckMate 142 study, nivolumab plus low-dose (1 mg/kg) ipilimumab provided robust and durable clinical benefit with a manageable safety profile in previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) at 13.4- and 25.4-month median follow-up (Overman MJ, Lonardi S, Wong KYM et al. Durable clinical benefit with nivolumab plus ipilimumab in DNA mismatch repair-deficient/microsatellite instability-high metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36:773-779. Overman MJ, Lonardi S, Wong KYM, et al. Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab in previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer: long-term follow-up. J Clin Oncol. 2019;37:635). Here, we present results from the 4-year follow-up of these patients.
Patients and methods: Patients received nivolumab (3 mg/kg) plus low-dose (1 mg/kg) ipilimumab every 3 weeks (four doses) followed by nivolumab (3 mg/kg) every 2 weeks until disease progression. Primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR; as per RECIST version 1.1).
Results: A total of 119 patients were treated; 76% had ≥2 prior lines of therapy. Median follow-up was 50.9 months (range 46.9-62.7 months). Median duration of therapy was 24.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8-33.2 months]. Investigator-assessed ORR increased from 55% (95% CI 45% to 64%) at 13.4 months to 65% (95% CI 55% to 73%) at 50.9 months with a disease control rate of 81% (95% CI 72% to 87%). The complete response rate increased from 3% at 13.4 months to 13% at 50.9 months. Partial responses were observed in 52% of patients; 21% had stable disease, and 12% had progressive disease. Median time to response was 2.8 months (range 1.1-37.1 months), and median duration of response was not reached (range 1.4+ to 58.0+ months). At data cut-off, 37 (48%) patients had ongoing responses. Median progression-free survival was not reached [95% CI 38.4 months-not estimable (NE)], and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI NE). Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were observed in 32% of patients; 13% of patients had any-grade TRAEs leading to discontinuation.
Conclusions: The results confirm long-term benefit of nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab for previously treated patients with MSI-H/dMMR mCRC. The safety profile was manageable with no new safety signals.
Keywords: MSI-H/dMMR; colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; ipilimumab; metastatic; nivolumab.
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