Application of stem cells and exosomes in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage: an update

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2022 Jun 28;13(1):281. doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-02965-2.


Non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage is a highly destructive intracranial disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. The main risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage include hypertension, amyloidosis, vasculitis, drug abuse, coagulation dysfunction, and genetic factors. Clinically, surviving patients with intracerebral hemorrhage exhibit different degrees of neurological deficits after discharge. In recent years, with the development of regenerative medicine, an increasing number of researchers have begun to pay attention to stem cell and exosome therapy as a new method for the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage, owing to their intrinsic potential in neuroprotection and neurorestoration. Many animal studies have shown that stem cells can directly or indirectly participate in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage through regeneration, differentiation, or secretion. However, considering the uncertainty of its safety and efficacy, clinical studies are still lacking. This article reviews the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage using stem cells and exosomes from both preclinical and clinical studies and summarizes the possible mechanisms of stem cell therapy. This review aims to provide a reference for future research and new strategies for clinical treatment.

Keywords: Exosomes; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Mesenchymal stem cells; Neuroprotection; Stem cells.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / therapy
  • Exosomes*
  • Risk Factors
  • Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects