Evaluation of Genetic Kidney Diseases in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Towards Precision Genomic Medicine in Donor Risk Assessment

Curr Transplant Rep. 2022 Jun;9(2):127-142. doi: 10.1007/s40472-021-00340-3. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Abstract

Purpose of review: To provide a comprehensive update on the role of genetic testing for the evaluation of kidney transplant recipient and living donor candidates.

Recent findings: The evaluation of candidates for living donor transplantation and their potential donors occur within an ever-changing landscape impacted by new evidence and risk assessment techniques. Criteria that were once considered contraindications to living kidney donation are now viewed as standard of care, while new tools identify novel risk markers that were unrecognized in past decades. Recent work suggests that nearly 10% of a cohort of patients with chronic/end stage kidney disease had an identifiable genetic etiology, many whose original cause of renal disease was either unknown or misdiagnosed. Some also had an incidentally found genetic variant, unrelated to their nephropathy, but medically actionable. These patterns illustrate the substantial potential for genetic testing to better guide the selection of living donors and recipients, but guidance on the proper application and interpretation of novel technologies is in its infancy. In this review, we examine the utility of genetic testing in various kidney conditions, discuss risks and unresolved challenges. Suggested algorithms in the context of related and unrelated donation are offered.

Summary: Genetic testing is a rapidly evolving strategy for the evaluation of candidates for living donor transplantation and their potential donors that has potential to improve risk assessment and optimize the safety of donation.

Keywords: genetics; genomic medicine; kidney; living donor; transplantation.