Patent Ductus Arteriosus Stent Versus Surgical Aortopulmonary Shunt for Initial Palliation of Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease with Ductal-Dependent Pulmonary Blood Flow: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

J Am Heart Assoc. 2022 Jul 5;11(13):e024721. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.024721. Epub 2022 Jun 29.


Background In patients with ductal-dependent pulmonary blood flow, initial palliation includes catheter-based patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stent or surgical aortopulmonary shunt (APS). This meta-analysis aimed to compare outcomes between PDA stent and APS. Methods and Results A comprehensive literature search yielded six retrospective observational studies. Pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were included to control for covariates and assess time to event analysis. Of 757 patients, 243 (32.1%) underwent PDA stent and 514 (67.9%) underwent APS. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and expected biventricular repair were more common with PDA stent compared with APS (39.6% versus 21.2%, P<0.001 and 57.9% versus 46.6%, P=0.007, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in mortality between PDA stent and APS (HR, 0.71; [95% CI, 0.26-1.93]; P=0.50). PDA stent was associated with lower risk of postprocedural complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.45; [95% CI, 0.25-0.81]; P=0.008), mechanical circulatory support (OR, 0.27; [95% CI, 0.09-0.79]; P=0.02), and shorter intensive care unit length of stay (-4.03 days; [95% CI, -5.99 to -2.07]; P<0.001), hospital length of stay (-5.54 days; [95% CI, -9.20 to -1.88]; P=0.003), and duration of mechanical ventilation (-3.41 days; [95% CI, -5.29 to -1.52]; P<0.001). There was no difference in pulmonary artery growth or hazard of unplanned reintereventions. Conclusions PDA stent has a similar hazard of mortality compared with APS. Benefits to PDA stent include shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, shorter hospital length of stay, and fewer complications. Differences in patient characteristics exist with more patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and expected biventricular repair undergoing PDA stent.

Keywords: aortopulmonary shunt; congenital heart disease; ductal‐dependent pulmonary blood flow; mortality; patent ductus arteriosus stent; single ventricle; tetralogy of Fallot.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Catheterization / adverse effects
  • Cyanosis
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent* / complications
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent* / surgery
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / complications
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia / etiology
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents
  • Treatment Outcome

Supplementary concepts

  • Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum