The human uterus is exposed to epigenetic factors during maturation, which might influence its neural network. The mesh muscle is formed from the circular muscle during development and maturation, and it coordinates the longitudinal and circular muscle function. The uterus has an autonomous neural network with contractility and propagation patterns that determine its reproductive potential and health during pregnancy and delivery. Emerging knowledge on the uterine neural network and mesh muscle ultrastructure contributes to new ideas and solutions on the role of intrauterine pressure and distending fluid intravasation during hysteroscopy, and even allows for improving the operative techniques of myomectomy, adenoma cytoreductive surgery and metroplasty. Good health and well-being start from the in utero stage of life. Prenatal and antenatal care are of paramount importance to minimize the risks of malnutrition and pollutants, and foster a healthy uterus. Research regarding the neural network, function and contractility of the nongravid uterus is a new chapter in gynecology that provides significant information for a better understanding and early diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathologies and early pregnancy support.
Keywords: estrogen; myometrium; neurotransmitter; progesterone; uterus.