Anti-Müllerian hormone levels and breast cancer risk in the study of women's health across the nation

Cancer Causes Control. 2022 Aug;33(8):1039-1046. doi: 10.1007/s10552-022-01596-5. Epub 2022 Jun 29.


Purpose: The relation of premenopausal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels with breast cancer risk has been evaluated in a few studies, but primarily in non-Hispanic White women.

Methods: We evaluated the association of AMH levels with breast cancer risk in Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-ethnic cohort of women. At enrollment, participants had an intact uterus and ≥ 1 ovary, and ≥ 1 menstrual period in the last 3 months. AMH at first measurement was assessed in 1,529 pre- or perimenopausal women using a high-sensitivity ELISA assay; values were natural log transformed. Breast cancer diagnoses were assessed at enrollment and subsequent follow-up visits through 2018 (median 6.1 years).

Results: In total, 84 women reported an incident breast cancer diagnosis. In multivariable Cox regression models adjusting for age, race and ethnicity, body mass index, and other factors, higher AMH levels were associated with a non-significant increased breast cancer risk. Compared to women in the 1st quartile, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for women in the 4th quartile was 1.77 (0.87-3.60).

Conclusion: Our results did not suggest a significant association between AMH and breast cancer risk; however, estimates were consistent with prior studies that reported positive associations.

Keywords: AMH; Breast cancer; Women’s health; anti-Müllerian hormone levels.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone*
  • Breast
  • Breast Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Premenopause
  • Women's Health


  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone