The clinical and prognostic factors for biliary neuroendocrine neoplasm: a study based on the SEER database

BMC Surg. 2022 Jun 29;22(1):253. doi: 10.1186/s12893-022-01689-7.


Background: In this study, we aimed at elucidating the postoperative survival and prognostic factors in patients with biliary neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN).

Methods: Cases of biliary system NEN and adenocarcinoma from 1975 to 2016 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. A propensity score matching (PSM) method was used to adjust baseline differences in clinicopathological characteristics in our analysis. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was carried out for survival analysis.

Results: A total of 233 patients with biliary system NEN were enrolled in this study, of which 119 patients' lesions located in gallbladder, while the others' located in bile duct. The postoperative overall survival of bile duct NEN is significantly longer than that of gallbladder NEN (P < 0.001). For gallbladder NENs, surgery method (P = 0.020) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.018) were identified as independent prognostic factors. In terms of ampulla of vater (AOV) NENs, age (P = 0.017) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006) were identified as independent prognostic factors, while grade (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.036) were identified as independent prognostic factors for extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) NENs. PSM analysis indicated that patients with biliary duct NENs have a better postoperative prognosis than biliary duct adenocarcinoma.

Conclusions: Patients with NEN have better overall survival than patients with adenocarcinoma. Gallbladder NEN has an adverse prognosis than that of biliary tract NEN. The pathological subtype, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, surgery method, and lymph node resection could affect the postoperative prognosis of the gallbladder and biliary tract NEN.

Keywords: Biliary tract; Gallbladder; Neuroendocrine neoplasm; Prognosis; Propensity-matching analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma* / pathology
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic* / pathology
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors* / diagnosis
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors* / surgery
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies