Risk factors for revision surgery due to dislocation within 1 year after 111,711 primary total hip arthroplasties from 2005 to 2019: a study from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

Acta Orthop. 2022 Jun 24;93:593-601. doi: 10.2340/17453674.2022.3474.

Abstract

Background and purpose: Dislocation of a hip prosthesis is the 3rd most frequent cause (after loosening and infection) for hip revision in Norway. Recently there has been a shift in surgical practice including preferred head size, surgical approach, articulation, and fixation. We explored factors associated with the risk of revision due to dislocation within 1 year and analyzed the impact of changes in surgical practice.

Patients and methods: 111,711 cases of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register were included (2005-2019) after primary THA with either 28 mm, 32 mm, or 36 mm femoral heads, or dualmobility articulations. A flexible parametric survival model was used to calculate hazard ratios for risk factors. Kaplan-Meier survival rates were calculated.

Results: There was an increased risk of revision due to dislocation with 28 mm femoral heads (HR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0-3.3) compared with 32 mm heads. Furthermore, there was a reduced risk of cemented fixation (HR 0.6, CI 0.5-0.8) and reverse hybrid (HR 0.6, CI 0.5-0.8) compared with uncemented. Also, both anterolateral (HR 0.5, CI 0.4-0.7) and lateral (HR 0.6, CI 0.5-0.7) approaches were associated with a reduced risk compared with the posterior approach. The time-period 2010-2014 had the lowest risk of revision due to dislocation. The trend during the study period was towards using larger head sizes, a posterior approach, and uncemented fixation for primary THA.

Interpretation: Patients with 28 mm head size, a posterior approach, or uncemented fixation had an increased risk of revision due to dislocation within 1 year after primary THA. The shift from lateral to posterior approach and more uncemented fixation was a plausible explanation for the increased risk of revision due to dislocation observed in the most recent time-period. The increased risk of revision due to dislocation was not fully compensated for by increasing femoral head size from 28 to 32 mm.

MeSH terms

  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip* / adverse effects
  • Hip Dislocation* / epidemiology
  • Hip Dislocation* / etiology
  • Hip Dislocation* / surgery
  • Hip Prosthesis* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Joint Dislocations* / surgery
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Prosthesis Failure
  • Registries
  • Reoperation / adverse effects
  • Risk Factors