An inquiry among surgical residents and recently formed surgeons was set up at two major university centers. The information was gathered from 72 departments with an officially accepted surgical training program. Major shortcomings were noted at both the theoretical and practice levels. The global impression of the recently trained surgeons shows moderate enthusiasm. The pedagogic value of several accredited surgical training programs must be questioned. A global evaluation at the end of the training program is also deemed indispensible. The strictly surgical curriculum of the surgeons recently trained in Belgium is totally insufficient when compared to that of those trained abroad. Suggestions to improve the surgical training program as a whole are given in detail.