Background: Native Americans (NAs) are more likely to experience chronic pain than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs); however, the proximate causes predisposing NAs to chronic pain remain elusive. Likely due to centuries of adversity, discrimination, and marginalization, NAs report greater psychological stress than NHWs, which may place them at risk for sleep problems, a well-established risk factor for chronic pain onset.
Purpose: This study examined the effects of psychological stress and sleep problems on subjective and physiological measures of pain processing in NAs and NHWs.
Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to determine whether ethnicity (NA or NHW) was associated with psychological stress or sleep problems and whether these variables were related to conditioned pain modulation of pain perception (CPM-pain) and the nociceptive flexion reflex (CPM-NFR), temporal summation of pain (TS-pain) and NFR (TS-NFR), and pain tolerance in a sample of 302 (153 NAs) pain-free participants.
Results: NAs experienced more psychological stress (Estimate = 0.027, p = .009) and sleep problems (Estimate = 1.375, p = .015) than NHWs. When controlling for age, sex, physical activity, BMI, and general health, NA ethnicity was no longer related to greater sleep problems. Psychological stress was also related to sleep problems (Estimate = 30.173, p = <.001) and psychological stress promoted sleep problems in NAs (indirect effect = 0.802, p = .014). In turn, sleep problems were associated with greater TS-pain (Estimate = 0.714, p = .004), but not other pain measures.
Conclusions: Sleep problems may contribute to chronic pain risk by facilitating pain perception without affecting facilitation of spinal neurons or endogenous inhibition of nociceptive processes. Since psychological stress promoted pain facilitation via enhanced sleep problems, efforts to reduce psychological stress and sleep problems among NAs may improve health outcomes.
Keywords: Chronic pain risk; Health disparities; Nociceptive flexion reflex; Sleep; Temporal summation.
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