RNA-sequencing of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas reveals a novel SND1::BRAF fusion and 3 different molecular aberrations with the potential to upregulate the TEAD1 gene including SEC23IP::VGLL3 and TEAD1::MRTFB gene fusions

Virchows Arch. 2022 Jul 1. doi: 10.1007/s00428-022-03368-7. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) has been shown to harbor various recurrent molecular aberrations; most of which, however, seem to be present in only a minority of cases. In order to better characterize the molecular underpinnings of MIFS, fourteen cases were analyzed by targeted RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), VGLL3 enumeration FISH probe, and BRAF break-apart and enumeration probes. Neither t(1;10)(p22;q24) nor BRAF gene amplifications were found. However, VGLL3 gene amplification was detected in 5 cases by FISH which corresponded with an increase in VGLL3 expression detected by RNA-seq. In 1 of these cases, RNA-seq additionally revealed a novel SND1::BRAF fusion. Two of the 9 cases lacking VGLL3 amplification harbored either a SEC23IP::VGLL3 or a TEAD1::MRTFB rearrangement by RNA-seq, both confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The detected molecular aberrations have a potential to either activate the expression of genes regulated by the transcription factors of the TEAD family, which are involved in tumor initiation and progression, or switch on the MEK/ERK signaling cascade, which plays an important role in cell cycle progression. Our results broaden the molecular genetic spectrum of MIFS and point toward the importance of the VGLL3-TEAD interaction, as well as the deregulation of the MEK/ERK pathway in the pathogenesis of MIFS, and may represent a potential target for therapy of recurrent or advanced disease.

Keywords: Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma; SEC23IP::VGLL3; SND1::BRAF; TEAD transcription factors; TEAD1::MRTFB fusion; VGLL3 amplification.