Background: In Lao PDR, dengue fever is the most important vector borne disease and vector control remains the principal method to fight against Aedes aegypti the primary transmitter mosquito species. Vector control management programs need new strategies in addition to conventional larviciding and adulticiding interventions in the country. In this study, we examined the In2Care® Mosquito Trap's efficacy using insecticide auto-dissemination strategy. The insecticide pyriproxyfen, present in powder form inside the trap station, contaminates the body of gravid female mosquitoes visiting the traps and is later on disseminated via the mosquitoes in breeding sites surrounding the traps. We tested the attractiveness of the Traps, their efficacy to reduce the larval and adult abundance, and the impact on emergence rates. Specifically, we tested if the servicing interval of the In2Care® Mosquito Trap could be extended to 12 weeks.
Methods: Two black plastic ovitrap buckets and two BG® sentinel traps were placed in the premises of the Science campus of Vientiane Capital located in an urban area to measure weekly the larval and adult relative abundance of Aedes mosquitoes from 2017 to 2019. Twenty-five In2Care® Mosquito Traps were evenly distributed in this area and two studies of 12 weeks were implemented during January and April 2018 and, July to October 2018 (dry and rainy season, respectively). Every 2 weeks, water samples from 5 In2Care® Traps were randomly selected and tested at the laboratory with Ae. aegypti larvae to measure the larval and pupal mortality. The relative abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in the BG traps® with the presence of In2Care® Traps in 2018, was compared with the surveillance results obtained in 2017 and 2019 without In2Care® Traps. Every week, water samples from the ovitrap buckets were tested for Emergence Inhibition (EI).
Results: The In2Care® Traps were very attractive to gravid Ae. aegypti mosquitoes specifically during the rainy seasons with 96% of the traps colonized with larvae/pupae within four weeks. The bioassays showed 100% mortality in the water samples from the traps during the twelve weeks studies showing the good efficacy over time of the pyriproxyfen without additional servicing in the 12 week period. In addition, the larvicide was successfully disseminated into the ovitrap buckets placed in the treated area where 100% of EI during all weeks of intervention was measured. There was no significant effect of the treatment on adult abundance reduction in the treated area, probably due to recolonization of adult mosquitoes surrounding the field experiment.
Conclusions: The observed potential of the In2Care® Mosquito Trap using the auto-dissemination strategy could lead to the use of this new tool in combination with conventional control methods against Dengue vectors in urban tropical areas. Large scale field trials should be implemented in Lao PDR to prove its efficacy for Public Health programs.