Objective: The mechanisms through which cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) for avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) may work have yet to be elucidated. To inform future treatment revisions to increase parsimony and potency of CBT for ARFID (CBT-AR), we evaluated change in food neophobia during CBT-AR treatment of a sensory sensitivity ARFID presentation via a single case study.
Method: An adolescent male completed 21, twice-weekly sessions of CBT-AR via live video delivery. From pre- to mid- to post-treatment and at 2-month follow-up, we calculated percent change in food neophobia and ARFID symptom severity measures. Via visual inspection, we explored trajectories of week-by-week food neophobia in relation to clinical improvements (e.g., when the patient incorporated foods into daily life).
Results: By post-treatment, the patient achieved reductions across food neophobia (45%), and ARFID severity (53-57%) measures and no longer met criteria for ARFID, with sustained improvement at 2-month follow-up. Via visual inspection of week-by-week food neophobia trajectories, we identified that decreases occurred after mid-treatment and were associated with incorporation of a food directly tied to the patient's main treatment motivation.
Discussion: This study provides hypothesis-generating findings on candidate CBT-AR mechanisms, showing that changes in food neophobia were related to food exposures most connected to the patient's treatment motivations.
Public significance: Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) can be effective for treating avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). However, we do not yet have evidence to show how they work. This report of a single patient shows that willingness to try new foods (i.e., food neophobia), changed the most when the patient experienced a clinical improvement most relevant to his motivation for seeking treatment.
Keywords: ARFID; avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder; case report; cognitive-behavioral therapy; exposure; feeding and eating disorders; food neophobia; telemedicine; video therapy.
© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.