A new multiphase calcium phosphate graft material improves bone healing-An in vitro and in vivo analysis

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2022 Dec;110(12):2686-2704. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.35121. Epub 2022 Jul 2.


This study aims to evaluate the potential of a novel biomaterial synthesized from amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), and hydroxyapatite (HA) to repair critical-sized defects (CSD) in rabbit calvaria. In vitro analyses of cell viability, cell proliferation, formation of mineral nodules, and cell differentiation using qPCR were performed for comparing experimental calcium phosphate (ECP), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Bilateral CSDs were created in 45 rabbit calvaria. Six groups were evaluated: ECP, ECP + fibrin sealant (ECP + S), coagulum, autogenous bone, DBB, and β-TCP. Euthanasia was performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks, followed by micro-computed tomography and histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results from in vitro analyses revealed similar biocompatibility for all tested materials and a tendency for higher gene expression of some bone markers in the ECP group than in β-TCP and DBB groups at 7 days. In contrast to that in DBB and β-TCP groups, ECP displayed growing bone volume over total volume percentage (BV/TV%) with time in vivo. Histological analysis revealed a greater number of giant cells and reduced size of grafted particles in ECP during all periods of analysis. RUNX-2 expression was statistically lower in ECP than DBB at 2 and 4 weeks. Despite no statistical significance, ECP presented the highest absolute values for ALP-expression at 2, 4, and 8 weeks compared with other groups. Together, our findings indicate that a combination of the ACP, OCP, and HA phases into ECP is beneficial and promising for bone regeneration.

Keywords: biomaterials; bone regeneration; calcium phosphates; rabbit calvarial defect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Bone Substitutes* / pharmacology
  • Calcium Phosphates / pharmacology
  • Cattle
  • Durapatite / pharmacology
  • Fibrin Tissue Adhesive*
  • Rabbits
  • Skull / pathology
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bone Substitutes
  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
  • amorphous calcium phosphate
  • beta-tricalcium phosphate
  • octacalcium phosphate
  • Durapatite
  • calcium phosphate