Lactobacillus plantarum-derived extracellular vesicles protect against ischemic brain injury via the microRNA-101a-3p/c-Fos/TGF-β axis

Pharmacol Res. 2022 Aug;182:106332. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106332. Epub 2022 Jun 30.


Currently, the reported source of extracellular vesicles (EVs) for the treatment of ischemic stroke(IS)is limited to mammals. Moreover, these EVs are restricted to clinical translation by the high cost of cell culture. In this respect, Lactobacillus plantarum culture is advantaged by low cost and high yield. However, it is poorly understood whether Lactobacillus plantarum-derived EVs (LEVs) are applicable for the treatment of IS. Here, our results demonstrated that LEVs reduced apoptosis in ischemic neuron both in vivo and in vitro. As revealed by high-throughput sequencing, miR-101a-3p expression was significantly elevated by LEV treatment in OGD/R-induced neurons, as confirmed in the tMCAO mice treated with LEVs. Mechanistically, c-Fos was directly targeted by miR-101a-3p. In addition, c-Fos determined ischemia-induced neuron apoptosis in vivo and in vitro through the TGF-β1 pathway, miR-101a-3p inhibition aggravated ischemia-induced neuron apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and miR-101a-3p overexpression produced the opposite results. Hsa-miR-101-3p was downregulated in the plasma of patients with IS but upregulated in the patients with neurological recovery after rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis. In conclusion, Our results demonstrated for the first time that LEVs might inhibit neuron apoptosis via the miR-101a-3p/c-Fos/TGF-β axis, and has-miR-101-3p is a potential marker of neurological recovery in IS patients.

Keywords: C-Fos; Extracellular vesicles; Ischemic stroke; Lactobacillus plantarum; MiR-101a-3p; TGF-β pathway.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Brain Injuries*
  • Extracellular Vesicles* / metabolism
  • Lactobacillus plantarum* / genetics
  • Lactobacillus plantarum* / metabolism
  • Mammals / metabolism
  • Mice
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • MicroRNAs* / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta


  • MicroRNAs
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta